Erode District lies on the extreme north of Tamil Nadu. It is bounded mostly by Karnataka State and also River Palar covers pretty long distance. To the East lies Namakkal and Karur Districts. Dindugal District is its immediate neighbour to the South and on the West, it has Coimbatore and Nilgiri Districts, as its boundaries. Thus Erode District is essentially a land-locked area having no sea-cost of its own. Erode District situated at between 10 36” and 11 58” North Latitude and between 76 49” and 77 58” East Longitude. The region comprised in the district can be portrayed as a long undulating plain gently sloping towards the river Cauvery in the south-east. The two major tributaries of river Cauvery viz. Bhavani and Noyyal drain the long stretch of mountains in the north.
DISTRICT ADMINISTRATIVE SET UP :
Erode district is divided into two Revenue divisions Erode and Gobichettipalayam. There are 10 taluks and 375 Revenue villages. Erode Corporation is the only corporation in Erode district. There are four Municipalities namely Bhavani, Gobichettipalayam, Sathyamangalam and Punjai Pulliampatti. There are 42 Town panchayats and 225 Village Panchayats.
Topography of the district can be portrayed as a long undulating plain gently sloping from North West towards the river Cauvery in the south-east and has rock out crops. The north western part of the district which includes Thalavadi, Sathyamangalam, Gobichettypalayam, Bhavani Sagar, Bhavani, Andhiyur, Ammapet blocks is flanked by southern slopes of eastern ghats. The district is bounded at the north by western ghats of which the Thimbam hills and Thalavadi ranges attain an elevation of 1200 metre. The north western part of the district is forest area and the elevation ranges from 600 to 1350 m. In the plains the elevation ranges from 150 to 300 m. southerly direction. A small patch of area almost plain and the elevation ranges from 100 to 150 m falls western side of Cauvery river.
CLIMATE AND RAINFALL
The district in general is characterised with a scanty rainfall and a dry climate. Maximum rainfall is recorded in Gobichettipalayam and Bhavani taluks. The Palghat gap in the Western Ghats, which has a soothing effect in the climate of Coimbatore District, does not render much help in bringing down the dry climate in this area. The cool-wind that gushes out of the west coast through Palghat gap looses its coolness and becomes dry by the time it crosses Coimbatore district and reaches Erode region
Erode District has dry weather throughout except during the monsoon season. Generally the first two months of the year are pleasant, but in March, Mercury gains an upward trend which persists till the end of May. Highest temperature is normally recorded during May. The scanty showers during this period do not provide any relief to the oppressive heat. There is a light improvement in the climate during June-August period. During this pre-monsoon period, the mercury reverses its trend and by September, the sky gets overcast heavily but the rains are meagre. North-east monsoon sets in vigorously only during October-November and by December, the rains disappear rendering the climate clear but pleasant.
Erode experiences hot and dry weather throughout the year. The temperature ranges from a maximum of 96 °F (36 °C) to a minimum of 80 °F (27 °C). Like the rest of the state, April to June are the hottest months and December to January are the coldest. Erode receives 800 mm of rainfall with an average of 717 mm. The South west monsoon, with an onset in June and lasting up to August, brings scanty rainfall. Bulk of the rainfall is received during the North East monsoon in the months of October, November and December. The municipality covers an area of 8.44 km2 (8,440,000 m2).The records of this observatory may be taken as fairly the representive of the condition of the district.
The relative humidity in general, during the year is between 5 to 63 per cent in the interior parts of the district, except during the northwest monsoon season, when it is over 65 per cent.
The Major irrigation reservoirs
S.No Name of the Reservoir Year of Construction Maximum Water Level (in Feet) Maximum Capacity (in MCft) Ayacut Area (in Ha)
1. Lower Bhavani Dam 1955 76 32800 57817
2. Perumpallam Dam 1980 42 130 2115
3. Varuttupallam Dam 1978 38 110 1652
SCENARIO OF HORTICULTURE CROPS
Normal area under horticulture crops in Erode District is about 55029.66 hectare and about 15% of the total cultivable area. Banana and Mango are two major fruit crops grown in the district and banana grown in 13947.31 ha and mango grown in 722.73 hectare. Among vegetables, Onion is grown in an area of 1894.14 hectare. Potato is grown in extent of 706.6 ha in Thalavady hills followed by tomato, beans, bhendi, brinjal and greens. In hilly areas cole vegetables like cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, beetroot etc., are also grown in considerable extent. Tapioca is another major crop mainly grown for industrial purpose and normal area is about 9300 hectare in the district. Tapioca is grown as rainfed crop in Kadambur hills of Sathyamangalam and Burgur hills of Anthiyur block.
Spices and condiments grown in an area about 5645 hectare and turmeric is only major spice crop grown in the district and about 5112.84 hectare is normally grown. Erode is the famous market centre for turmeric in the country. Major plantation crops grown in the district is Arecanut and about 654.68 hectare is under this crop. Jasmine is an important flower crop grown about 1271.41 ha in this district and its larger area concentrated in one taluk namely Sathyamangalam and flowers send to various places in the state and also neighboring state like Karnataka and Kerala. Apart from Jasmine, tuberose, marigold, mullai are other flower crops grown in the district.
Area of Horticultural Crops
S.No Details Area in (Hac)
1. Fruits 15577
2. Vegetables 16258
3. Spices & Condiments 5645
4. Plantation crops 15411
5. Medicinal crops 84
6. Flowers 2052