Madurai District is located in Tamilnadu at South central region and it is gate way to other southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The Southern boundary is Virudhunagar district. Northern boundary is Dindigul District, Eastern boundary is Sivagangai District and Western boundary is Theni district. It is situated between Northern latitude 9030’ and 10030’ also between Eastern longitude 770 28’ AND 780 28’ Madurai District is at 147M above M.S.L. The General slope of Madurai District is from west to east.
Madurai District consists of 10 Taluks which includes 13 blocks. Further the Taluks are divided into 51 firkas which include 431 Panchayats consisting of 665 villages. The total geographical area of the District is 3741. 73 km and this occupies 2.9% of the total area of Tamil Nadu. The Major horticulture crops grown in this district are Mango, banana, aonla, Guava, sapota, vegetables, loose flowers especially jasmine and medicinal plants etc.
Weather and climate :
This District has tropical climate. The maximum temperature ranging from 32’C to 39’C. The minimum temperature ranges from 17’c to 26’c. The variation between day and night temperature is very narrow in this region. The average weather condition prevailing in this district is as follows.
Maximum temperature : 33.7’c
Minimum temperature : 23.8’c
Sunshine hours : 8.4 hrs. / day
Average Rainfall : 874.5 mm
Relative humidity (RH) : 75%
Wind velocity : 5.5 km/hr
The average rainfall of this region is 874.5 mm. Out of this total quantity a major percentage (50%) is received during north east monsoon (October – November). The quantity is around 400 mm.
1. Madurai North, Madurai South, Vadipatti & Melur. : Clay soil, Red soil
2. Tirumangalam, Usilampatti & Peraiyur : Black soil, Red soil
Irrigation Sources :
Vaigai river is flowing through this district which originates in western ghats is the major source of irrigation. Sources of irrigation are tanks, wells and bore wells.