The Nilgiris District which forms part of Tamil Nadu means “BLUE MOUNTAINS” , in Sanskrit and “NEELAMALAI” in Tamil. The Nilgiris district is situated in the North-western part of the State and Western Ghats. The Geographical area of the district is 2,545 square Kilometers, Consist of six Taluks namely Udhagamandalam, Kundha, coonoor, Kotagiri, Gudalur and Pandalur. The Unique feature of the Nilgiris district is that about 56 % of the total area of the district is under forest. The Nilgiris is tiny district on the Western Ghats located between 11010 and 11045 N latitude and 76014 and 7702 E longitude. The district has different climatic conditions such as Tropical, Sub-tropical and Temperate. The district experiences an average minimum and maximum temperature of 0oC to 25.2oC. The entire district is a Hilly region with a minimum and maximum height of 800 Meters and 2636 meters above the MSL respectively.Rainfall in the district varies considerably and ranges from 1063 to 2368.6 mm per annum, depending upon the Altitude and Topography of the place. The average rainfall is 1522.70 mm per annum. The district comes under the influence of the south – west monsoon and North – East monsoon.
The soil of the district is classified into three groups viz., clay, clay loam, and loam with lateritic sub – soil. Horticulture continues to be dominating sector in the Economic Development sustaining 75%of population in this district. The existence varied Agro- climatic conditions has made this district a home for almost all cultivated crops such as vegetables, fruits, flowers, spices and plantation crops. The cultivation is done mainly on terraced lands and sometimes even on narrow slopes in small valleys. The temperate crops such as Tea, Potato, Cabbage, Carrot, Beans, Plum, Pear, Peach, etc., are grown in the higher plateau of this hill district while sub tropical crops like Mandarin Orange, Coffee are grown in the mid region of the hills and various humid tropical crops like Clove, Nutmeg, Pepper, Ginger and fruits like Durian Rambutan, Litchi, Jack etc, are grown in the lower elevation of this district.