Thiruvannamalai district is coming under North Eastern Zone region and the total area under cultivation is 230405.50 ha. In that, Horticultural crops have been cultivated in about 27103.90 ha and the prominent crops under cultivation are Banana, Mango, Tapioca, Tomato, Chillies, Brinjal, Bhendi, Watermelon, Muskmelon, Gourds, Turmeric, Medicinal coleus, lemongrass, Palmarosa, Jamine, Chrysanthemum and Tuberoseand other vegetables.In tiruvannamalai district Seetha and Jackfruit are producing in Jawadhu hills. Banana plantation is widely practiced in Padavedu region. Approximately 56 % of people are depended on Agriculture related works.
Soil Classification:- Four soil groups’ viz., deep red soil, thin red soil, clayey soil and gravelly soil are in the district. The predominant soil type in the district is red. Red series loam is found in the taluks with concentration in Polur taluk. Red series sand is also found in the all the taluks but predominantly in Thiruvannamalai, Chengam and Vandavasi taluks. Different types of soil like ferrogenous loamy and sandy are seen throughout the district. Black series of loam is found in tank and river bed areas of Vandavasi and Cheyyar taluks.
Climate and Rainfall:- The general climate is tropical. The district receives rainfall from North East and South West monsoons. The average rainfall of the district is 1074.70 mm. Nearly 45 per cent of the rainfall is received during the Northeast monsoon period (October to December). The normal rainfall of the district during Southwest monsoon is 468.40 mm and during Northeast monsoon is 457.10 mm.
The average annual temperature is 28.2°C in Tiruvannamalai. The Minimum temperature between variations in temperatures throughout the year is 7.9°C.The period from April to June is generally hot. The average maximum and minimum temperatures for district varies from 22°C to 42°C and 16°C to 31°C respectively. The driest month is February, with 11 mm of rainfall. The greatest amount of precipitation occurs in October, with an average of 226 mm. The warmest month of the year is May, with an average temperature of 32.1°C. The lowest average temperatures in the year occur in December, when it is around 24.2°C. The difference in precipitation between the driest month and the wettest month is 215 mm.
Schemes implemented through Department of Horticulture and Plantation crops:-
To increase the production, productivity and income of farmers, various schemes are being implemented through Department of Horticulture and Plantation crops. To impart hi-tech production techniques among farmers through various schemes like poly house construction, shade net house, mulching, distribution of seedlings of high yielding varieties of fruit crops, vegetables and plantation crops are being done.
I. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY)
II. Supplementary Water Management Activities (SWMA)
III. National Agriculture Development Programme (NADP)
IV. Integrated Horticulture Development Programme (IHDS)
V. National Ayush Mission (NMMP)
VI. Collective Farming (Collective Farming)
VII. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bheema Yojana (PMFBY)
VIII. Tamil Nadu Irrigated Agriculture Modernization Project (TNIAMP)