Salem district lies in the western Ghats zone. It between 11° and 12° North latitude and 77° 40’ and 78° 5’ East longitude. The total geographical area is 5205 sq.km and the district is comprises of nine taluks viz., Attur, Edappadi, Gangavalli, Mettur, Omalur, Salem, Sankari, Valappady and Yercaud. The mean maximum temperature is 25°C - 42°C and the mean minimum temperature is 19°C - 25°C. The mean annual rainfall is 993.9 mm of which 37.9 per cent (376.6 mm) is received during the North East Monsoon 40.9 per cent (406.9 mm) during the South West Monsoon 20.8 per cent (206.4 mm) during summer and 0.4 per cent (4 mm) during winter. The major source of irrigation is through wells (89%). Of the total geographical area, the net sown area occupies 40 per cent (2,08,128 ha) and the remaining area is under forest (24.1%), barren and uncultivable land (8%) and land put to non agricultural uses accounts for 11.7 per cent. The total horticulture area is around 76,014 ha.
The North Western Agro-climatic Zone shows considerable diversity in soil types. The major soil types occurring in the zone are 1) Red non-calcareous, 2) Red- Calcareous 3) Alluvial 4) Black soil 5) Hill soil 6) Forest soil 7) Saline/alkali soil. Of these major area comes under red non-calcareous and red calcareous soils. Red /brown non- calcareous soil is predominant in the North-Western Zone occupying 62.6 per cent followed by Red/Brown calcareous soil with 30.5 per cent. Black and alluvial soil contributes a meager 5.6 and 1.3 per cent respectively. Total area under Salem District in different soil series is 3.47 lakh hectares of which Red Non-Calcareous soil is predominant occupying 66.3% of the area. The next comes the Red calcareous soil type with 29.3 per cent followed by Black (3.8%) and Alluvial deposits (0.6%). The taluks with non-calcareous soil type are Attur, Mettur, Omalur and Salem. Sankari taluk has predominantly occupied with calcareous soil type.
In our district we are implementing NHM, NADP, IHDS, RAD, Collective Farming, PMKSY, SWMA, RPMFBY,INM-IPM, PKVY, Crop incentive scheme, Urban Horticulture, IAMWARM, Vegetable kit distribution, NAMMP, NBM, Entrepreneurship in vegetable seed production and Organic farming. In this district,there are around 6 farms at SHF-Karumandurai,SHF-Mulluvadi,SHF-Sirumalai,SHF-Maniyarkundam,SHF-Yercaud and GO-Karumandurai and 6 parks includes Lake Park, Anna Park, Rose Garden, GBG-I, GBG-II and Heritage Garden.